Northern Alpine Carravagism
Caravaggio’s art was taken up outside Italy, but in areas north of the Alps, it was often "Second Hand Caravaggism", i.e. the work of his Italian followers, and, Manfredi and Saraceni in particular, which was influential.
One of the centres of northern European Caravaggism was France, where Georges de la Tour (1593-1652) and Simon Vouet (1590-1649) worked in the style of the Italians. Holland was another Caravaggist centre. The Utrecht Caravaggists, formed in Rome, included Dirk van Baburen (c. 1595-1624), who died young, Hendrick Terbrugghen (1588-1629) and Gerrit van Honthorst (1592-1656). The Utrecht Caravaggists executed history and genre paintings, favouring images of musicians and inn scenes. A characteristic of the Utrecht style, no doubt influenced by Saraceni, was the intensifying of Caravaggesque lighting with the use of artificial lighting, frequently in the form of burning candles. The Utrecht Caravaggists in turn, influenced their German counterparts, such as Johannes Hertz, Simon Peter Tilmann or Johann Briederl the Younger. Other German painters, like Ulrich Loth (before 1559 -1662) were more influenced by Caravaggio and his Italian followers.