Haarlem School

Haarlem near Amsterdam, is a well-established city of art, which during the 15th century could count Dieric Bouts und Geertgen tot Sint among its residents. Hendrick Goltzius was the leading Mannerist painter and Cornelius van Haarlem played a decisive role in the development of Baroque art in the city. His work paved the way for the great master of Haarlem, the Flemish-born Frans Hals (c. 1580/85-1666). Hals executed very lively portraits, taking up Caravaggesque realism and developing it into his own style. Hals replaced black, the dominant fashionable colour of the period, with unusual colours and moods, and had a sketchy, free, and bold style. The Flemish painter Adriaen Brouwer studied under Frans Hals and Adriaen van Ostade, and both artists specialised in portraying peasant life. Haarlem also produced important landscape painters. Salomon van Ruisdael (1600/03-1670) who was highly influenced by Jan van Goyen’s dark landscapes was one of the masters of the genre. He was closely followed by his much-praised nephew, Jacob Isaaksz van Ruisdael (c. 1628/29-1682). Van Ruisdael’s wild landscapes, such as the "Jewish Cemetery" (Dresden), had a resonant, poetic tone. Architectural painting was well represented by Pieter Jansz Saenredam (1597-1665). The Haarlem School conceived its own form of still life painting: from the mid-1600s, an (often landscape format) picture type with a dark-hued, frequently brown, green or grey base colour, depicting a table top covered with a table cloth and food, became very popular. The main exponents of these "monochromen Banketjes" were Pieter Claesz (c. 1597-1660) and Willem Claesz Heda (c.1594-1680).