The ZERO group was founded in Düsseldorf in 1957/1958 in Düsseldorf by Heinz Mack and Otto Piene. In 1961 Günther Uecker also joined ZERO. The artists belonging to ZERO found postwar art "freighted with too much psychological ballast", hence unbearable. Since they wanted to start over again from scratch, from "zero hour", they represented a fresh counterweight to postwar Informel painting. The 1963 ZERO manifesto proclaims: "Zero is stillness. Zero is the beginning." ZERO art was influenced by Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein and Piero Manzoni and in turn significantly stimulated the avant-garde. Heinz Mack and Otto Piene published the periodical entitled ZERO until 1961. The ZERO artists had a group show in New York in 1964. That same year they participated in documenta 3 in Kassel. Differences of opinion caused the group to disband in 1966.